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Feature | November 2015

Come up trumps with standards

Adoption of international standards set for motors would shower immense benefits, boosting our exports and checking spurious imports.

Due to failure in adoption of global standards by manufacturers, Indian motor industry is losing ground to rising imports. Today, energy efficiency is of dominant importance due to the ever rising electrical energy demand, growing awareness about global warming, and fossil fuel prices threatening to spiral again.

It is estimated that electrical motors driven systems (EMDS) consume approximately 65% of energy consumed by the industry and account for between 43% and 46% of all global electricity consumption; giving rise to about 6040 Mt of CO2 emissions. Electric motors are a basic need of industry, turning every industrial wheel.

The largest proportion of motor electricity consumption is attributed to mid-size L.T. (low tension) motors with output power of 0.75 kW to 375 kW. Asynchronous alternating current (AC) induction motors are most frequently used and consume the most energy.

Imports & exports
The Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers´ Association (IEEMA) has expressed concern over the rising imports. Expressing dismay over rising imports at a time when domestic project implementation is sluggish, IEEMA represented to the government to restrict imports to those adopting higher efficiency (at least IE2) standards for replacement of over 20-year old machines in the country. The move will save over USD 1 billion of annual energy, it claimed.

Imports were estimated to have spiked to `2,521 crore in 2014-15, while exports were at `1567 crore. The size of motors or rotating machines industry is estimated to be of the order of `6480 crore in 2014-15, according to (IEEMA). An IEEMA committee also held a meeting with the Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bengaluru to identify and bridge gaps in availability of testing facilities for measuring efficiency of motors. ´Adopting international standards will equip Indian manufacturers to compete with other countries. Best standard adoption would bring more energy efficiency for motors in the country,´ said Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency, which introduced star labelling system for motors.

Harmonisation of Indian standards with that of international ones, and improving testing facilities under IE2 and IE3 standards will ´help country to reduce import considerably from present level of about `2000 crore/ annum and increase export as global usage is increasing of IE2 & IE3 motors,´ said KN Hemanth Kumar, Chief Manager-EE Motors & Distribution Transformer, International Copper Association India (ICAI).

However, only about 10% of motor production in the country has adapted to IE2 and above levels. ´By just making IE2 level mandatory, at current levels of motor production, in the first year itself India can save about Rs.500 crore. With the cascading effect, by the fifth year, the savings would be about Rs.5000 crore per year, says Kumar.

International Standards
In 2008, in IEC 60034-30, the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) precisely defined and open-ended international efficiency classification scheme using IE1, IE2, IE3 and the testing procedure for motors IEC 60034-2-1. Globally, in many developing countries the motor standards are harmonised to the international standards.

Recently, IEC has published the first edition of IEC 60034-30-1, which replaces IEC 60034-30 (2008). It expands the scope of power range to - 0.12 kW to 1000 kW. The IE4 class was newly included in this standard.

The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), which formulates the standards in India, has launched the revised energy efficient motor standards IS12615:2011, expanding the power range to - 0.37kw to 375kw. However, they are not yet made mandatory.

BEE´s Star Rating system based on efficiency of the motors covers motors up to 375 kW. Responding to a query on standards and efficiency they could bring into motors, Dr Mathur said, ôAs per Indian standard IS-12615, the minimum efficiency for 0.37 kW motor is 72.2% approximately and varies with capacity of motor.´

Change in mindset
Indian consumer is said to be too cost-conscious when it comes to buying things. This tendency makes them to opt for bids offering the lowest initial cost at the time of purchasing the motor. However, operating cost of the motor far outweighs the initial cost of buying them. The initial cost of an 11-kW motor is only 3.9% of the running cost in the first year of operation. Improved efficiency means lower running costs and an early recovery of the extra price paid for the energy efficient motor, says Kumar, suggesting that, as such, the buyers should adopt the life cycle cost, instead of least cost on buying.

Taking this lead, organisations such as NTPC, Aditya Birla Group etc., are using minimum IE3 motors in their new plants. Almost all major motor manufacturers are ready with this range of IE3 motors. Some have also developed super premium efficiency IE4 motors, which are now available on order.

The huge unorganised sector in motor manufacturers is a big hindrance in making standards mandatory. However, in the long run it will affect their prospects itself and that of their customers who opt for their inferior motors, says Dr Mathur. ´Many consumers prefer a low cost (low- efficiency) motor as compared to a high cost (higher efficiency) motor despite the lower electricity consumption cost of the higher efficiency motor during its life time.´

However, Indian manufacturers are making strides in the pumps segment, which is one of the indispensible sectors driven by motors, with indigenisation of advanced technologies, says Bharat Patel, President of the Indian Pump Manufacturers Association (IPMA).

Listing some of the achievements of the Indian pump manufacturers, Patel said that in the thermal power generation sphere the first ever concrete volute pumps to pump sea water through a once-pass cooling water system of a 500 MW thermal power station were recently made and successfully commissioned. The capacity range for these types of pumps is 10,000 m3/hr to 120,000 m3/hr.

Total indigenisation was achieved in various kinds of motors used in captive power-generation or co-generation, hydropower and pumped storage power generation, oil and natural gas sector, refineries, fertilisers, lubricants and petro-chemicals sector, mining and metal ore refining sector, steel sector, paper sector, utility sector, agriculture and irrigation and fisheries and aquaculture.

Steps called for China, Korea, Brazil and Europe have made it mandatory to sell minimum IE2 efficiency motors in their countries, in 2011. We need to follow this example, to curtail energy shortages and improvement in the quality of life for all. Creating awareness on the need to adopt life cycle cost method while purchasing motors and including such clause while calling tenders, would change the composition of efficient motors in the next few years.

Replacement of old motors - those above 20 years old - would bring in enormous benefits for the industry and the country in the form of energy conservation and efficiency of motors.

Such practices not only lower energy costs, but also improve equipment reliability. The government should ensure that only higher efficiency motors are allowed to be imported, checking entry of substandard motors, which anyway are being manufactured in the unorganised sector in the country.

Experts say that India has miles to go before reaching the high global efficiency levels û when do you foresee this happening?
In some of the sectors India has achieved global efficiency levels and in some it is leading too. As an example, Indian LPG stoves have better thermal efficiency as compared to their foreign counterparts. Another such example is air conditioner, which will now need to measure efficiency in terms of ISEER (Indian Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio), which is a factor to measure air conditioner´s efficiency on the basis of Indian climatic conditions. Indian economy is changing rapidly and growing demand of higher efficient product would certainly a matter of time for Indian industries to achieve global efficiency levels.

Types of Electric Motors
Types of AC Motors 

Classification Based On Principle of Operation:
(a) Synchronous Motors.
1. Plain
2. Super
(b) Asynchronous Motors.
1. Induction Motors:
(a) Squirrel Cage
(b) Slip-Ring (external resistance).
2. Commutator Motors:
(a) Series
(b) Compensated
(c) Shunt
(d) Repulsion
(e) Repulsion-start induction
(f) Repulsion induction
Classification Based On Type of Current:
1. Single Phase
2. Three Phase
Classification Based On Speed of Operation:
1. Constant Speed.
2. Variable Speed.
3. Adjustable Speed.
Classification Based On Structural Features:
1. Open
2. Enclosed
3. Semi-enclosed
4. Ventilated
5. Pipe-ventilated
6. Riveted frame-eye etc.
Types of DC Motors Most common DC motor types are:
1. Permanent-magnet motors
2. Brushed DC Motor
a. DC shunt-wound motor
b. DC series-wound motor
c. DC compound motor
i. Cumulative compound
ii. Differentially compounded
d. Permanent magnet DC motor
e. Separately excited
3. Brushless DC Motor
4. Coreless or ironless DC motors
5. Printed armature or pancake DC motors
6. Universal motors


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