Electrical equipment segment requires to adopt and implement effective energy efficient strategies to fuel growth.
Energy is an essential pillar of a growing economy, and therefore it becomes crucial that energy efficiency is tapped to its fullest potential in equipments and applications to curb energy costs. Moreover, for a fast growing economy like India, where power for all is still a dream, it is imperative to curtail energy wastes to the maximum extent possible.
In the recent past, the Indian government has fast-paced the implementation of energy efficiency across the spectrum. This includes manufacturing, electrical and other industrial sectors. Consequently, the electrical motors industry, catering to a diverse spectrum of consumers, has started adopting advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency in motors.
Electrical motors play a crucial role in the functioning of almost every industry, with Electrical Motors Driven Systems (EMDS) consuming approximately 65 per cent of the total energy used. It is estimated that EMDS account for around 43û46 per cent of global electricity consumption, emitting about 6040 million tonne (MT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)!
With India having committed to the climate change accord COP21 in Paris, the country´s primary target is to reduce emission-intensity by 33-35 per cent by 2030, against the 2005 levels. As a result, it is only natural that India will implement and follow international standards of energy efficiency in the widely used electrical motor segments.
According to Allied Market Research, ´the world electric motors market is estimated to touch $129 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 5.3 per cent during 2015-2020 period.ö It further added that in the last couple of years, Asia Pacific accounted for the highest revenue generating region in world electric motors market followed by Europe. The high growth in Asia-Pacific is owing to the rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in the region.
The hermetic motor segment is expected to register CAGR of 7.4 per cent, while brushless leading in DC motor market is poised to register CAGR of 4.6 per cent during 2015-2020. Integral Horsepower (IHP) Output motor would register a double digit CAGR during the period.
The electrical motors market in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5 per cent till 2021, the reasons being, robust Indian economy, high infrastructure investments, industrial growth, developments in power sector, rise in agricultural pumps demand, sturdy performance of automobile industry and consistent growth in consumer durables.
Globally, 50 per cent of the electrical demand is from the high volume automobile segment, while In India it is more than 80 per cent. Indian automobile industry is one of the largest in the world and is expected to be a leader by 2020. Automobiles´ contribution to India´s GDP is close to 7 per cent. Interestingly, 31 per cent of the small cars sold globally are manufactured in India.
Electrical motors can be classified into three types based on their applications:
a) Industrial applications: pumps, fans, compressed air delivery, conveyors, etc.
b) Building applications: pumps, fans, conveyors, lifts, compressors in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems, etc.
c) Home appliance applications: refrigerators, air conditioners, personal computer and laptop fans, hard drives, cooking appliances, oven fans, extractor fans, garden appliances, pool pumps, etc.
Owing to steady growth in all these segments, India´s motor industry has been seeing higher demand, with some quarters even opining that the segment may surpass the growth projections.
According to the International Copper Association India, the largest proportion of motor electricity consumption is attributed to mid-size LT motors with an output power of 0.75 kW to 375 kW. Asynchronous alternating current (AC) induction motors are most widely used, their energy consumption being on the higher side. These motors are either sold to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) or integrated into pre-packaged electro-mechanical products (such as pumps, fans, compressors, etc.), or sold as a stand-alone motor that the customer then integrates into a specific application on site. Such stand-alone motors are used in large volumes according to standardised input power and size specifications.
While AC motors are largely used in industrial applications, DC motors are preferred for small appliances and automobiles, owing to their low maintenance costs.
Globally, volatile raw material prices pose a major challenge to the motor industry. Lack of capacity utilisation further strains the already stretched industry worldwide. For India, the challenges are more domestic, like the drop seen in MW production, drop in prices due to high competition and increase in imports especially from China. The stagnation of industrial sectors in India in the last few years has further added fuel to the fire. The industry should focus on the retrofit market of energy efficient motors till new capacity gets developed. There are demands from different segments that the government should consider scrapping of over 15 to 20 years motors and replacing them with new generation energy efficient IE2/IE3/IE4 Motors.
Globally, the demand for energy efficient electric motors is driving the market. Although energy efficient motors may be a bit on the costlier side, considering their environmental benefits and far lower lifecycle expenses, it should not be a hindrance. The rise in electricity prices and fuel motors are also factors that are driving the demand for such motors.
According to Ashok Kulkarni, Chairman, IEEMA Rotating Machine Division, in one of his earlier interactions, ´In India, awareness of energy saving is very high with consumers, e.g. mileage of any vehicle is at the top of the mind when buying a vehicle. Or star labelling which influences the buying pattern of consumer goods. However in the Industrial sector, we have to still go long way for bringing energy efficiency as a top most priority, by giving preference for only energy efficient equipment over lowest cost buying.
The Indian industry also has started putting in efforts to bring in energy efficiency to achieve cost competitiveness. Energy cost is a major component in running cost of any industry and that keeps increasing annually. So it is important for the industry to adopt energy efficient technologies.´
The Government of India has taken several steps to improve/cut down energy consumption, such as announcing a scheme to distribute star-rated pumps for agricultural use, among others. Under this scheme a farmer can replace his old pump with an energy-efficient one, free of cost.
Standard is always an integral part of any composite framework to achieve energy efficiency and adoption of technology. Since energy efficiency and technology are necessary for the sustainable development of an economy like ours, standards play a pivotal role as performance benchmarks. They not only provide a path for progression, but also facilitate a medium for technology transfer to developing economies.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), which was earlier known as Indian standard Institute (ISI) is part of a global family of standard development organisations promoting standardisation in different areas. The committee structure of formulating standards in BIS brings together all stakeholders, so that standards are developed through a process of consultation.
The BIS mark also provides third-party assurance to users that a product conforms to the relevant Indian Standard. It enables the government to introduce mandatory requirements of product certification to bring such articles, processes and services, which it considers necessary from the point of view of health, environment, prevention of deceptive practices, consumer protection, etc.
According to BIS, standardisation norms for electrical equipment gives one the following benefits:
a) It provides interoperability
b) It ensures safety in electrical products
c) It allows the industry to share knowledge, technical solutions and best practices, leading to sector-wide improvements
d) Standardisation of new technologies and processes can increase operational efficiency.
BIS has launched revised energy efficient motor standards, IS12615:2011 in line with international motor standards IEC 60034-30. IS12615:2011 is a revision of IS12615:2004, which had only two levels - Eff1 and Eff2 - having scope for 2P and 4P motors up to 160 kW, and 6P motors of up to 132 kW. The testing methodology was also different. This standard got harmonised in 2008, after which the testing procedures and efficiency classes i.e. IE1, IE2 and IE3 were defined. In 2011, India adopted the global IEC standards and came up with IS12615:2011.
The scope of IS12615:2011 standard was revised/ extended from 0.37 kW to 375 kW, over IS12615:2004. The total band of IS12615:2011 standard has been classified into IE2 and IE3 efficiency classes, also including parameters like breakaway torque, current and full load current. The standard also specifies that IE2 is the baseline motor efficiency class. Going further, BIS has created a road map, stating the way forward for the scope to be IE3.
However, only 16 per cent of motor production in the country belongs to the IE2 class currently. The country is losing out on a great opportunity in energy conservation; by mandating a shift to IE2, India can save up to Rs.500 crore in the first year itself, and the savings would compound to around Rs.5,000 crore per year by the fifth year.
The next level of standardisation should be to help in achieving sustainable development through the application of renewable energy and related technology like LVDC. It would facilitate progress from product level standards to system standards. In addition, the objective would be improving benchmark in terms of quality, safety, environment protection and to provide level playing field for all concerned stakeholders. Despite facing major challenges in the past two years, the Indian motors industry has managed to hold forth with positive growth rate. The industry is hopeful that the government will address its concerns of higher imports, which are dampening the domestic industry. Additionally, the Make in India initiative is expected to boost the confidence of manufacturers. Incidentally, electrical motor is one of the five sectors that the government has identified under the ´Make in India´ programme as having high investment potential.